110 THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO QUARTERLY the specific. Curiously enough, it is a motion away from the Christian idea and towards the secular idea. Professor Chew provides many fascinating examples of this phenomenon. It is enough to indicate here that in the main the abstract personified symbol is drawn steadily towards the political and social theme. (The work of Bunyan appears as the great exception.) The Four Daughters of God are put to defending the rival ecclesiastical and political claims of the Catholic, Anglican, and Puritan parties. In illustrating topical debates, in magnifying the Virgin Queen, in hallowing the practices of the English merchant, the medieval type of Christian symbol was gradually secularized and schooled for surprising new tasks. Soon after Milton abandoned his "Adam Unparadised" in favour of the direct, non-allegorical treatment of God and man in Paradise Lost, the "venerable personification " is seen to mince rejuvenated- but unshriven-across the Restoration stage. Clearly, then, the allegorical symbol does not enshroud the generative ideas of Christianity. It enshrouds a secular rationalism culminating in the witty abstraction of Alexander Pope-or perhaps in Mrs. Malaprop. In fairness to Professor Chew, I must make it clear that this sketch of the direction taken on the one hand by the Christian idea and on the other by the medieval type of symbol, constitutes my own deduction from the evidence which he presents. Professor Chew has been more cautious and has allowed his documents to speak for themselves. But if I have heard their talk aright, the book has the kind of relevance which I have claimed for it. To the contemporary Christian artist who nervously seeks fit flesh in the strange shops of our day, Professor Chew's study should be heartening. For here the Christian tradition appears, and so it should appear, as the charitable captor of traditions, eternally seizing and sanctifying the quick profane, bequeathing its tested garments to the beggars of time. In Mauriac's quest for the Creator in the creature, in Graham Greene's astonishing employment of his detective "thriller" techniques, in Eliot's baptism of the Golden Bough and the bifocal sense of history, in Auden's particularization of allegory and in his patristic rendering of the new psychology, in all of these, the Christian tradition, which is no tradition and all traditions, continues to exert its generative force. THE GROWTH OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE* F. S. Haec *The Growth of Physical Science. By Sir ]AMES ] BANS, O.M. Cambridge: at the University Press (Toronto: Macmillan Co. of Canada]. 1947. Pp. x, 364. ($3.50) Through the world-wide popularity attained by such books as The Universe Around Us, The Mysterious Universe, and Physics and Philosophy, the late Sir James Jeans awakened a remarkable public interest in astronomy and other physical sciences. That he was a master at presenting abstruse concepts in a very lucid and almost exciting manner is attested by the en- REVIEWS 111 joyment his books gave to a very large circle of readers. That he was himself one of the great productive scholars in the field of mathematical physics may not be as well known to his wider audience. Yet the background of a whole generation of modern physicists·was shaped to a considerable extent by such almost classical mathematical treatises as Jeans's Dynamical Theory of Gases, The Mathematica[ Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, and Astronomy and Cosmogony. With his record as a very productive scholar in several difficult fields of the mathematical sciences, and as a writer of scientific best-sellers, Sir James Jeans was uniquely fitted to write such a volume as The Growth of Physical Science. The result is a most remarkable and valuable book, whether for careful or more casual reading. Any attempt to summarize the development of mathematics, astronomy, physics, and chemistry from the most remote beginnings down to relativity, the quantum theory, and the expanding universe, must be based on a rather arbitrary and personal selection of ideas, events, and men. In the fairly large section devoted to astronomy, Jeans has struck a reasonable balance between observation and theory. The general historical development is divided into eight main eras, each of which is further sub...
Cloud nucleating aerosols have been found to modify the amount and spatial distribution of snowfall in mountainous areas where riming growth of snow crystals is known to contribute substantially to the total snow water equivalent precipitation. In the Park Range of Colorado, a 2km deep supercooled liquid water orographic cloud frequently enshrouds the mountaintop during snowfall events. This leads to a seeder-feeder growth regime in which snow falls through the orographic cloud and collects cloud water prior to surface deposition. The addition of higher concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) modifies the cloud droplet spectrum toward smaller size droplets and suppresses riming growth. Without rime growth, the density of snow crystals remains low and horizontal trajectories carry them further downwind due to slower vertical fall speeds. This leads to a downwind shift in snowfall accumulation at high CCN concentrations. The potential for significant modification of snowfall accumulation in the seeder-feeder environment depends upon the cloud liquid water content, mean cloud droplet size, snowfall rate, ice water content, environmental temperature and supersaturation, vapor deposition rate, the Bergeron process, and the size and lifetime of the orographic cloud. Changes in these microphysical processes can substantially alter the amount of riming growth of snow crystals and snowfall accumulation. Cloud resolving model simulations were performed (at 600m horizontal grid spacing) for several snowfall events over the Park Range. The chosen events were well simulated and occurred during intensive observations periods as part of two winter field campaigns in 2007 and 2010 based at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, CO. For each event, sensitivity simulations were run with various initial CCN concentration vertical profiles that represent clean to very-polluted aerosol environments. Microphysical budget analyses were performed for these simulations in order to determine the relative importance of the various cloud properties and growth processes that contribute to precipitation production. Microphysics diagnostic tools were used to sample an array of grid points within the supercooled orographic cloud to establish trends relating the variability in the aerosol effects due to specific changes in the liquid and ice clouds. By determining the range of environmental conditions, droplet size thresholds, LWC, and snowfall rates that lead to minimum and maximum riming modification, we have been able to create a matrix of conditions that allow for a prediction of potential precipitation modification by CCN aerosols for a given orographic precipitation scenario.
Although the nature of dust attenuation affects nearly all aspects of galaxy evolution, very little is known about the form of the dust-attenuation law in the distant Universe. Dust enshrouds and obscures UV star formation, convoluting our understanding of galaxy evolution at high redshift. Recent literature has recognized how the inferred physical properties of distant galaxies can be influenced by the non-universality of their attenuation curve shape. In this talk, I will present a Bayesian method to quantitatively constrain the dust-attenuation curve in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. This method is tested on galaxies at z~2 where we have CANDELS UV-to-optical photometry and Spitzer/Herschel IR luminosities. We find that the dust law implied from using only UV/optical data to calculate the full posterior probability densities supports the observed IR luminosities as predicted by that dust law. This method shows promise to deduce the shape of the attenuation curve at higher redshifts (z>4), as supported by our experiments using mock data from a semi-analytic model with qualities like those of the CANDELS GOODS fields.
Methods: We utilize cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (cluster-SIMS) to acquire three-dimensional (3D) information about 5-30 µm TiO2 microspheres imbedded into an ionic liquid. The method allows molecular depth profiling with submicron spatial resolution and depth profiling with a resolution of several tens of nanometers. The ionic liquid matrix enshrouds the spheres, allowing them to be introduced into the vacuum environment of the mass spectrometer.
Despite the opportunities, the odds remain stacked against thegrowth-seeking innovator. In The Innovator's Guide to Growth, ScottAnthony, Joseph Sinfield, Mark Johnson, and Elizabeth Altman describe howmost innovation efforts deliver disappointing results. They perceive that afog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunitiesand making success a fleeting phenomenon. Their belief, backed by significantresearch and experience, is that disruptive innovation is the key to plugginggrowth gaps and routinely surprising the market. 2b1af7f3a8