Travel mugs, as their name implies, are for people who want to take beverages on the go. In addition to being portable, travel mugs also retain hot or cold temperatures for several hours so you can enjoy your coffee, tea, or cocoa over time. Compared to paper or styrofoam to-go cups or open ceramic mugs, a good travel mug will offer better insulation and also safeguard against leaks or spills. If you commute, work or travel outside, or simply want to savor drinks for longer, a travel mug is for you.
The second critical factor in steam sterilization is the temperature of the saturated steam controlled in the chamber of the sterilizer. Figure 2 clearly demonstrates how increasing the temperature dramatically reduces the time needed to achieve sterilization. Figure 2 illustrates approximately how much time is required to achieve equivalent microbial lethality (SAL 100 with a starting population of 106, D121- value 2.0 minutes) at different moist heat exposure temperatures.3 The temperature of saturated steam is directly related to the pressure at which it is controlled. The pressure-temperature relationship values are shown in saturated steam tables.4 A typical cycle at 121°C (250°F) will require 15 to 17 lbs of gauge pressure (103 to 117 kPa) in the chamber of the sterilizer. The gauge pressure required will be higher than the pressure shown in the saturated steam table due to air mixed with the steam and elevation above sea level. The maximum pressure in an autoclave is limited by the specifications (ASME pressure rating) of the pressure vessel (chamber and jacket). 2b1af7f3a8